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IPUMs provides nine separate collections of harmonized data gathered from US and international sources. Harmonization makes it possible to directly compare different data sets, often from different countries or time periods, such as the first US Census in 1790 and the most recent in 2020. It is an open access resource developed and maintained at the University of Minnesota with funding from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and several private donors.

Publication date: January 1, 2023

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